In this article I will show you how to make two homemade potato blight sprays – one is called Bordeaux formula– made with lime and Copper sulphate, the other is called Cornell formula– made with dish washing liquid and oil.
Over 150 years ago, a fungal disease unknown to scientists invaded Ireland.
Potato blight destroyed crops throughout the country for more than 4 years, creating widespread famine, leading to mass emigration, and causing over a million deaths from starvation and disease.
- 1 How to grow potatoes
- 2 Potato blight is a fungus
- 3 When does potato blight occur
- 4 How does blight spread
- 5 How much damage will blight cause
- 6 What are the symptoms of potato blight?
- 7 How to prevent potato blight
- 8 How to treat potato blight
- 9 Failsafe approach to prevent blight
- 10 Natural methods for blight treatment
- 11 Homemade potato blight spray
- 12 Bordeaux formula
- 13 The Cornell formula
- 14 Pure Calcium Hydroxide [Slaked Lime] ⊘ Non-GMO ❤ Gluten-Free ☮ Vegan - 400g/14oz
- 15 Bonide Chemical Number-5 Hydrated Lime for Soil - 5 Pounds
- 16 99% PURE Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate Crystals (2 lb)
- 17 Copper Sulfate Crystals-10lb Bag (FINE Crystals)
- 18 Arm & Hammer Baking Soda, 5 Lbs
- 19 Arm & Hammer Pure Baking Soda (15 lbs.)
- 20 Sodium Bicarbonate, Baking Soda, by Pure Organic Ingredients, 2 lb, Highest Purity, Food Grade, Eco-Friendly Packaging
- 21 Mother Earth Monterey Horticultural Oil
- 22 Bonide Products (BND212 All Seasons Horticultural and Dormant Spray Oil Bonide 1-Gallon Pest Control Spray-212, 128 oz, Concentrate
- 23 Safer Brand 5118 Insect Killing Soap - 16-Ounce Concentrate
- 24 Safer Pyrethrin & Insecticidal Soap Concentrate, 1 Gallon
How to grow potatoes
If you would like more information about growing your own potatoes, please read my article How to grow potatoes. This covers everything you need to know from planting, preparing seed, growing, harvesting and storage and more about this great vegetable.
Potato blight is a fungus
Late potato blight is caused by the Phytophthora Infestans fungus which affects not only potatoes, but also other nightshade plants such as tomatoes, peppers and eggplant. If left untreated, it can decimate the plant population and contaminate the soil for future plantings.
A more common disease among nightshade plants is early blight, which is caused by the fungus Alternaria solani. Though this disease can be difficult to eradicate, it is not nearly as devastating as late blight.
When does potato blight occur
Blight can develop when the weather is warm and humid for extended periods and can be spread by air or water.
How does blight spread
Wind carries the fungal spores from plant to plant and water can wash the spores into the soil, infecting the young tubers.
How much damage will blight cause
If infected by late blight, an entire crop can be destroyed overnight. The fungus can even spread among harvested crops that are stored in the same bin or bag.
Though potato blight is usually killed by cold weather, there are some fungal strains that are resistant to cold and can survive over the winter especially in the soil and plant debris.
What are the symptoms of potato blight?
One of the first signs of blight affects the leaves; you will notice brown freckling or lesions on the leaves of the potato plant.
They may develop larger patches of brown with a yellowish border spreading from them. Under moist conditions, a white fungal growth can appear under the foliage.
In severe cases, the potato foliage can rot entirely and the tubers are shrunken with dark patches on the skin.
Brownish rot spreads down from the skin and into the potato which eventually turns into a soft, soggy, foul-smelling mess.
How to prevent potato blight
The best way to prevent potato blight is to choose a blight-resistant variety and use certified seed potatoes from a reputable source.
Ensuring that the hill of soil around the plants completely covers the base of the potato will also prevent the fungal spores that cause blight from reaching the tubers.
Treating the plants with fungicide can help prevent the development of potato blight.
Good airflow around the plants will help to keep them dry which will prevent fungal spores from forming and/or flourishing.
Planting in the direction of the prevailing wind and spacing the rows well with allow the air to circulate around and through the plants.
You should check the plants regularly and be prepared to act quickly if you should notice any signs of blight.
How to treat potato blight
If only a few leaves are affected, you can remove them and dispose of them safely.
Remember to wipe your pruner blades with detergent between cuts to prevent the infection from spreading.
Remove all infected foliage
If a lot of the foliage – typically more than 10% – appears infected, it should be completely cut away and discarded; this will prevent the tubers from growing any larger but removing the foliage may prevent the disease from moving down into the tubers, so long as they’re well covered with earth.
Avoid burning foliage
Though some horticulturists suggest composting or burning the foliage, others insist that may cause the disease to spread and should be avoided.
Cover tubers with soil
You should cover any exposed tubers to keep the spore from reaching them, which will also prevent sun damage and keep scavenging animals from the tubers.
Leave the crop untouched for at least two to three weeks to allow the blight spores at the soil surface to die and the potatoes to develop a thicker skin.
Inspect regulary for rot
After harvesting your crop, check the potatoes in your store regularly for signs of blight and discard any suspect tubers immediately.
Dry the remaining tubers (never wash them clean as the remaining moisture may cause fungal growth) before storing them in a cool, dark, and dry place.
Failsafe approach to prevent blight
As soon as your potato plants develop the signs of late blight, they will need to be acted upon. You will either have to spray the plants with a blight spray to control and “dry up” the blight or they must be pulled up and buried under the soil or disposed of in the bin.
The reason for the removal of the plant is because the spores will multiply and the plant cannot be saved. Should you remove the plant, use a large plastic bag to cover the foliage and stems before pulling the plant up, roots and all. This should prevent spreading the air bourne spores to the other plants.
It’s also recommended that you leave the plastic-wrapped plants in the sun for at least a day to ‘cook’ which may help to kill off the spores, before burying in the soil.
Natural methods for blight treatment
There are several ways to prevent and treat cases of potato blight without resorting to harsh chemical compounds.
The first is crop rotation. As this disease infects only nightshade plants, moving them to another area of the garden and planting a different crop in their place can be an effective means of reducing the reoccurrence of potato blight.
Next, proper garden hygiene is paramount: blight is a pathogen that can easily be spread by dirty hands, boots, or tools. Remember to sterilize your gear after coming into contact with infected plants.
Apply organic fungicides
Organic fungicides such as copper sulphate sprays can be effective on early and late blight – as is the disease-preventing agent Bacilus subtilis, a naturally occurring organism which may be sold under the brand names Serenade or Plant Guardian Biofungicide.
Homemade potato blight spray
There are two solutions you can make at home to help fight blight in your potatoes.
The first and more effective of the two is known as Bordeaux formula which is a mixture of lime, water and copper sulphate.
The second solution is known as the Cornell formula and is also a good preventative spray against potato blight.
To make a solution of Bordeaux formula you should:
- Mix 1 pound of slaked / hydrated lime in 1 gallon of water
- Mix 1 pound of Copper Sulphate crystals/powder in 1 gallon of water
- Fill a container with 2 gallons of water and add 1 quart (950mls) of copper sulphate solution and 1 quart of lime solution.
- The Bordeaux formula is now ready to use.
The Cornell formula
- 1 gallon of water with 1 tablespoon of baking soda,
- 1 tablespoon of oil (although vegetable oil will work, horticultural oil is best)
- 2 drops of dishwashing liquid or insecticidal soap.
- Mix it thoroughly and repeatedly shake it during use.
No matter which spray you choose, it should be applied in the mornings after removing any blighted leaves if possible. (this may not be an option if you have too many potatoes to go through)
Ensure to get the spray on the undersides of the leaves as well as on top of the leaves with your chosen fungicide.
Try to get this applied during dry weather and allow it to dry. Many of the solutions are rain-fast when dry. I have linked to the products below. Good luck!
Pure Calcium Hydroxide [Slaked Lime] ⊘ Non-GMO ❤ Gluten-Free ☮ Vegan - 400g/14oz
- Also known as Slaked Lime or Pickling Lime
- Used in the pickling process of cucumbers and other foods
- Helps bind the corn flour in corn tortillas to improve texture and taste
- Used as a pH adjuster in home brewing
- Can be used to "petrify" or "fossilize" fruits and vegetables containing Pectin
Bonide Chemical Number-5 Hydrated Lime for Soil - 5 Pounds
- Quickly raises soil pH, neutralizes soil acidity and provides Calcium
- Improves soil structure
- Not for sale in IA
99% PURE Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate Crystals (2 lb)
$15.99 in stock
- 99% PURE COPPER SULFATE PENTAHYDRATE. Bright blue copper sulfate crystals. Also known as cupric sulfate, bluestone, blue copper, copper II sulfate or blue vitriol. Useful in both agricultural and non-agricultural settings.
- THOUSANDS OF USEFUL APPLICATIONS. Farmers, property managers, homeowners, and others are discovering copper sulfate and its countless indoor and outdoor uses. We promise our pure copper sulfate will deliver results, no matter how or where you use it.
- INCREASES COPPER CONTENT IN SOIL. Copper sulfate has been known to be used as a fertilizer to increase the copper content of soil for agricultural purposes.
- USEFUL FOR ETCHING METALS. Leave a lasting imprint on soft metals like zinc, mild steel, and aluminum with copper sulfate. Create beautiful marks left on metal without a significant investment of time or money.
- CLEAR OUT CLOGS AND SLUDGE. Copper sulfate is a potent compound. It can be used to clean out clogs in pipes and clarify sludge and algae in ponds, lakes, and pools.
Copper Sulfate Crystals-10lb Bag (FINE Crystals)
$30.00 in stock
- 99.9% Pure
- Hydroponic Approved
- USA Made
Arm & Hammer Baking Soda, 5 Lbs
$3.08 in stock
- America's most trusted baking soda brand
- Great for baking, cleaning and deodorization
- Hundreds of uses
Arm & Hammer Pure Baking Soda (15 lbs.)
- Natural and gentle
- Great for baking but also household and personal care uses
- Absorbs and eliminates odors
- Environmentally sensible
- Resealable pouch
Sodium Bicarbonate, Baking Soda, by Pure Organic Ingredients, 2 lb, Highest Purity, Food Grade, Eco-Friendly Packaging
$10.99 in stock
- FOOD AND USP GRADE, HIGHEST QUALITY PRODUCT, ECO-FRIENDLY PACKAGING.
- COOKING AND BAKING.
- INDIGESTION OR HEARTBURN.
- BATH BOMBS.
Mother Earth Monterey Horticultural Oil
$15.51 in stock
- This insecticidal oil is for insect control in citrus, tree & vine crops, ornamentals and vegetable crops.
- It is effective as a dormant spray as well as during the hot summer months with no temperature restrictions.
- It can be used alone or in combination with other insecticides or fungicides.
- This petroleum oil base is odorless and non-staining.
Bonide Products (BND212 All Seasons Horticultural and Dormant Spray Oil Bonide 1-Gallon Pest Control Spray-212, 128 oz, Concentrate
$39.98 in stock
- USE YEAR ROUND - Our 3-in-1 product provides year-round protection against insects, mites, and diseases. Can be used at the dormant stage, green tip stage, delayed dormant stage, and during the growing season to prevent pest infestations and disease.
- INSECT KILLER - Product envelops and smothers a variety of insects including adelgids, aphids, scale insects, mites, mealybugs, and certain species of moth.
- DISEASE PREVENTION - Helps to control powdery mildew, rust, greasy spot, botrytis, and other listed diseases.
- FOLIAGE PROTECTOR - Used to protect pears, cherries, ornamentals, shrubs, peaches, asparagus, corn, peppers, roses, and other crops listed on the label.
- ORGANIC GARDENING - The active ingredient of All Seasons Spray Oil is mineral oil. Unlike harsh chemicals, mineral oil leaves no toxic residues. This natural product is approved for organic gardening and is safe to use around people and pets.
Safer Brand 5118 Insect Killing Soap - 16-Ounce Concentrate
$9.54 in stock
- 16 fl oz concentrate- makes up to 6 gal
- Contains potassium salts of fatty acids (49.52%)
- Targets and kills aphids, earwigs, grasshoppers, harlequin bugs, leafhoppers, mealy bugs, mites, plant bugs, psyllids, sawfly larvae, soft scales, spider mites, and whiteflies
- Can be used up until the day of harvest
- Will not persist in the environment
Safer Pyrethrin & Insecticidal Soap Concentrate, 1 Gallon
$69.78 in stock
- Safer Brand Insecticidal Soap and Pyrethrin Insect Killer 32 oz
- Concentrate makes up to 5 gallons of OMRI Listed insecticidal soap and pyrethrin to eliminate hard and soft bodied insects on contact
- This organic insect killer treats up to 3,600 sq